An international consortium consisting of Witteveen+Bos (NL), VITO (BE), Q-Con (DE), Newell (NL) and TU Delft (NL) worked on identifying risks and setting up a framework for the risk management of Ultra-Deep Geothermal Energy (UDG) and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS).

Geothermal systems at depths greater than 4 km are considered ultra-deep. Temperatures at these depths can vary from 120 to 250 °C. At these depths it may be necessary to apply EGS. These are stimulation methods to improve the permeability of the reservoir.

The study provides an overview of the health, safety and environmental risks of UDG and EGS. All identified risks are converted into a classification scheme that enables a project-specific 'quick scan' risk assessment to help identify mitigation measures.

The report is intended to support the Dutch State Supervision of Mines (SSM) in its advisory role to the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate on aspects of safety, health and environmental impact of geothermal developments.

The study is part of the Dutch Knowledge Programme on the Effects of Mining (KEM), the results were published by SSM on 4 January 2021.

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